The compulsory Third-Party Liability Insurance covers certain liabilities up to P100,000 such as third-party injuries caused by the insured car. It doesn’t cover the theft or damages made to the rented vehicle. The comprehensive insurance is participative. If you damage the car, you’ll have to shoulder the cost entirely for small repairs (up to P25,000) and will have to shoulder only up to 50% of the cost for bigger repairs (above P25,000). Note that some of the costs may be reimbursed to you by your own travel insurance if you have one which covers vehicle rentals.
Note that this typical insurance types may vary slightly from renter to renter. In any case, you will get the full rental contract agreement upon receiving the vehicle, so it’s the best time to see the insurance details as well.